transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept
An introduction to the general art of drawing.
A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)
Of the things which in the third Step, viz. in Drawing after Plaister-Rounds, or Embossed Works, are necessary to be observed
WHat profit or benefit is gotten in Drawing after Plaister, or any round embossed Figure, I have spoken of before in short; Now I shall speak of some properties belonging to the same.
To chuse a good light to draw after Plaister-Rounds.
For the first you shall chuse a good place, and principally a good light, for in the manner of the light is a great matter, in regard that here you must seek for to obtain the most pleasant shades, therefore the Room shall be big, having an high light, which is not to scattering or flying away too much, coming of a Place Northward, very profitable to shew the least Parts in a Figure very pleasantly;
Means how to amend the light.
But if the Room receives its light from the South then will it be necessary to put a frame, covered with oiled paper in your windows, and by this means you will make a constant even light in your Chamber;
At what height you shall chuse your light.
and the height of your light must be such, that the shade (which your Figure makes upon the ground) be equal, or a little less then the height of your figure you have set to draw after.
You also may conveniently draw in the Evening, by Candle-light, which many do commend more then to draw by Day-light, because the shades then appear more flat and even, and for this purpose is commonly used a lamp well-provided with oil, and divers wicks; this Lamp is hung up at a convenient height, and because that the light may not spread it self
How to use the same.
too much, but remain constant, and with more force diffuse her light, (and spread the same upon your Figure) it is customary to put oiled paper, (through which the light cannot shine) behinde it. Note also, that here no Candle is to be used, because that as the Candle burns lower and lower, so also the shades will vary, which is not in the use of a lamp to be feared. But in regard it is observed,
Night-light giveth hard shades.
that the Drawing by night is subject to bring forth hard and sharp shadows, by which means many make hard and Copper-like shining heightenings and reflexions; for prevention then, you shall set a frame strained over with fine oiled Paper betwixt the Model and the light, then the shades will be soft and sweet: Nevertheless, the day-light is to be commended before this, and therefore use the best, because in the day-light there appeareth a simple evenness, and a natural reflexion, you shall also set a white or grey paper behinde the Model, that you may perceive any reflexion the better, and to observe and distinguish the outcircumferent stroke in the shadows the better.
What distance to use in sitting.
Then make use of a convenient distance, not too light for all; and set your self down commonly from the Model (you intend to draw after) three times as far as the Model is high, and that in such manner, that your eyes as in a streight line may behold the Model;
To observe how the parties the one under the other do appear.
take then a Plum-line, and look by the same, what parts of your Model appears unto you in that, or by that streight line of your Plumb-line, and in what manner the one under the other comes to appear, begin then to scetch your figure, observing all what has been spoken before of drawing after Prints and Draughts. Now the further finishing I shall shew you in the Continuation, fundamentally, and as plainly as possible.