Sunday 27 April 2014

Goeree, Chapter VI

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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Of the Anatomie, or Knowledge of the inward and outward forme of the Humane body, concerning Muscles and Motions of the Arteries.
To know Anatomy necessary.
NOW in Order we should come to the life, but we do hold it first necessary to speak somewhat concerning the Anatomy of a man, in regard that knowing this is most necessary, especially to them that will draw after the life. For this Art informeth us to understand all the Muscles according to the motion and working of the body. When he that draweth hath the fundamental knowledge of the forms and nature of the Muscles and tendons, then shall he sooner apprehend the course and motion of the member, and it will shew it self in the first Aspect of the naked body, although sometimes they appear somewhat doubtful, how they close one into another, and which Muscle, (thorough the putting back of a tendon) come to swell, or to fall flat; 


but on the contrary, those that mean simply, and without the fundamental to understand the same, know nothing, but in all manner of Actions do represent one and the same Muscle or Muscles, after one manner and in one sort, yea, many are so stupid, that they represent (in one action of the body) all the Muscles of the whole body, for to shew (forsooth) that they understand the same, and think not that thorow the motion some Muscles draw themselves inward, when othersome swell and extend themselves, forcibly outward, and for to shew here the nature, shape form and change of the Muslces, would require very well an whole book; 

Means to exercise themselves herein.

Anatomy in Plaister
Divers Books of Anatomy.
From the Books go to the life.
we only will give some general rules, leaving the Practitioner to finde out the rest, using thereunto the best means, viz. to be frequent and often drawing after the Anatomy of mankind; there are divers of that sort cast in plaister, learning after them simply to know the forme and shape for the Muscles; there be also some Books made of the Anatomy, and among the rest there is one made by that understanding and well-experienced Picture-drawer, Jacob Vander Gracht with Draughts and names of the Muscles, serving all Picture-drawers, Stone-Cutters and Chyrurgiens, (because of the motions of a mans body, and also then searching to finde in the life it self, what thorow the aforesaid means you were taught observing the alterations and changes the rising and falling of the Muscles, and the complete working of the Members, Arteries and Muscles, which in seeing of the life will inform your judgements wonderfully, the Book in a little time you may expect to be published in our English Tongue.
Not to make all Muscles.
In what part you must observe your Muscles most.
    For to say yet something more for instruction, which in general is needful to be observed, it is to be noted, that in drawing after a naked body, all Muscles from the greatest to the smallest are not so plainly to be expressed, because your Figures my not appear like Anatomy-Figures, which is not graceful to the eye, and likewise easily admits correction; but that side, whose Member or Members that are most significant in Performing any action, must more or less be muscled, according to the force in that action of that Member or Members; and in so doing shall the Figure express his actions the better, forasmuch as you shall see, wherein the force of the action doth consist. Young persons must not be muscled so strong or hard, because such signifie a full grown mans in their full vigour and strength, whereunto youth because of their tender years have not yet attained.

Fat bodies have small Muscles.
Fair bodies must not be muscled hard.
    A fat man commonly is not gross of Muscles, but small, because their skin covereth much soft flesh, which is not in muscleous and lean bodies. You shall also not represent a body (which is of a noble, delicate and a chosen beauty, and of a mean height) with too much swelling muscles, because men of such statures have never have never much flesh upon their bones, and where there is not much flesh there also is no great swellings of muscles perceived.

    In Women you shall scarce express any muscles, for they appear in the life either not at all, or very little, except it be through some action, causing a particular force, and then you shall represent them but faintly and doubtful, that the evenness of the circumferent stroke of the members, and the smoothness which is in and upon womens bodies in a singular manner, be not spoiled or corrupted. In like manner you shall do with little male children, viz. to express their muscles with judgement according to the motion of the members, but faintly and doubtful, and in the female children less according to that in the women.
Of Muscles, many changes.
In what parts the most changes are incident.
    Further, in muscles there are many changes according to the motion of the body, as well in the swelling of them as in falling flat like in lifting up or falling down of the Arm, the muscles of the breast express themselves more elevated or depressed: the Hips are of the like working if they turn outward, or inward; and there comes more alterations in the Shoulders, in the Side, and about the Neck, then in any other members of the whole Body, because in the motion of them the most alterations come to appeare. Now the muscles, that make the principal alterations (by elevation or depression) of the whole body, be those that are behind the Hips. Secondly, those which the buttocks do make. Thirdly, those of spina dorsi. Fourthly, those of the Throat. Fifthly, those of the shoulders. Sixthly, those of the breast, beginning at the nipple, and ending in the small of the belly, all which alterations may be observed in the life, unto which I do refer the Practitioner, and pass over to the manner and observation, which is needful in imitation of the life.

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