Sunday 27 April 2014

Goeree, Chapter XVII, Addition

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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Of the Finishing of a Draught.
NOW in finishing of your Draught, it is necessary, that those things which you see, you do not childishly or Ape-like, imitate man after man: but that you do curiously observe what the Master of your Principal (whether it be Draught or Picture) doth intend withal what he hath expressed in his work; what meaning hath this stroke or that shade, and by what means he cometh to represent that, and for what reason: In like manner, you shall observe in the life it self by what means it cometh to pass that anything seen by us, seemeth to be that, which we see it to appear; Example, if you draw a face, either after the life, draught or picture, observe and take good notice to what symptoms, signes, strokes, shades or otherwise, such a face comes to be sorrowful or merry, crying or laughing, old or young, wilde or modest, foul or clean, homely or beautiful;
Profit of this observation.

that observing the same you may not follow only the same strokes, touches and shadows as near as possible, and so express the same actions and passions thereof, but that also you may retain the same in your memory, and learn to understand the same with a well-grounded knowledge; These Workings of Nature thorow the like strokes and shades to express out of your head, when occasion at other times shall require it upon the like occasion.
    When you do begin to finish your draught, in finishing your shades you shall principally observe, that at first you make not your shadows too hard nor too dark, as they must be, neither as you can get the same, but somwhat less, by reason that afterward (if necessity required) you may make the same harder and darker; for it may happen that afterward you must make it somwhat harder; for to gain a good observation in appearing backward or forward; and in case your first shade of less darkness, should it have made so dark as possibly you could make it, and that the same in respect of the light or day, distance and observation much should differ, you would finde your self much in a Labyrinth, or deceived, and finde that you could not attain to the compleat finishing thereof: for be it that you draw, with what stuff you please, there can be but one extreme dark or light, and therefore you shall accustom your self even from the beginning to draw, and shadow very light sweeter, faint and even; and in that dimness; to bring in the Perspective of darkness as much as possible. thus you seldom shall finde your self deceived, but you shall gain honor, and be able to finish your draught handsomly.
    Have also a care to keep your draught in one even and equal condition, so that one do not surmount above the other, and your draught do not appear to be full of dark and light spots, but the dark must agree in evenness with the lesser dark, and the lesser dark with the faint, and the faint with the strongest light, or otherwise you decline presently to hardness and stiffness, which in the life you will never meet withal.

Heightenings never to make so high as the highest wont.
    In the like manner you shall hold your self upon your coloured paper with the heightnings, make the same never so light, principally where much heightening is required, that you should needs to make the same lighter, of which also divers ways and manners are to be observed, some do as(?) to lay the heightnings before they have a final(firm?) and sound(?)
circumferent stroke, viz. the general lights which questionless must make the highest lights, and then begin by degrees to shadow the same; and so beget for the first a general in their drawings, which afterward thorow heightning and shadowing compleatly finish.
    Others do shade their draughts, and completely finish the same, and afterward put in their heightnings here and there, where occasion doth require it, both manner of wayes are good, especially for him that knows all things therein to distinguish; therefore I intend to give you some Caveats, which being well observed, it will be of small matter that is done first or last, the one or the other.

    First then, if you draw upon coloured paper, after a Print or Draught, observe onely the even likeness of dark and light by a manner of drawing to imitate, keeping at all times the great parts of light and shadows, and the small intermixt parts in the same manner, that the greater parts may always have rule and dominion over the lesser, imitating that, which with judgment of each property hereof is declared.

In Pictures dark and light difficult to distinguish.
    But coming to Pictures, there be many and dangerous Rocks, and false lights, which may deceive you, because that thorow the diversity of colours, a distinction not so well can be made, between the light, and the lesser light, and by consequence neither of the shades, therefore observe thus.
    Observe first of all the highest light of the whole Piece, in like manner the deepest shades, and make no heightning or light which you see only alone, but always observe the strongest and highest and upon all other lights, which come in under the consideration of lights, although it do differ in more or less light.
    Observe also always, when any peculiar lights come to appear in your eye, to enquire the reason thereof, by what means it comes to appear so light, whether it be not because that it findes it self environed about with darkness: for thorow the same you may often be deceived, supposing the same to be so light as you would make a heightning of it; but observing the same more curiously, and having also a reflection to the general and principal light, you will find many a time, that scarce you might leave the height, which your colourd paper has of it self; you may a time would be forced to pass over the same with some small or ayerie shade; such force gives the darkness, if any light stands in the midst thereof.
    In the like manner, if any darkness doth stand in the middle of the light, it will appear more dark then indeed it is; wherefore in drawing you must compare light against light, and dark against dark continually; thus (as by a certain Rule) you shall finde the power and strength of every light and shade, and become an evenness, generality and observation in all your Drawings; To speak more upon this subject I count it not necessary forasmuch as I have spoken sufficient of each property in particular; Hoping therefore, that this short Instruction will be profitable to all such, that are desirous to be studious in this most famous and Noble art of Drawing, and spur them forward to go on in learning, with all alacrity, diligence and speed, forasmuch as I have given them so plain, naked, sound and judicial instruction, as in short as I could possibly use the same to your most profit: Be diligent, and farewell.
An Addition.
Some that use the Art of Drawing, it haply may seem strange to, as soon as they have perused my short Introduction; that I have set down nothing touching the Proportion, Measures, Species and Formes of mens bodies, for to search into the same by one order, and a certain rule of measuring, and to understand the same. To which I answer, that I have passed by the same, with a good and well-grounded Premeditation, viz. That I may represent the same in another work compleat with more splendor and glory, so much as may be necessary to be understood in the Art of Drawing. More then this, I apprehend that this study of Proportion, (if any one will be too curious in the search thereof) is a great devourer and spender of time, by reason that God the Creator of all things hath created Nature so compleat, that the just Propotion thereof we can learn by our selves as oft, as we prove embossed Figures by the Touch-stone of Life it self; who knows not how easie it be to see whether any one be deformed, or have a body with good and formed members? but if any body should judge, that it should be necessary to say somthing concerning it, let him remember, that others with great pain and labour has writ sufficient concerning it, viz. ALBERTUS DURER, which has made an whole Book in folio concerning it, and PETER COUSIN in like manner; And out of both of them has Crispin Van de Pass taken some Figures, and measures them out after the Order of the Five Columes, as an Addition to his Book for the Art of Drawing; nevertheless, the profit that all those things have brought unto the young Practitioners, has been so little, that I never could hear any thing of it; but what needeth here contradiction, it is observable enough that when you will proportion a Figure according to the Measures and Divisions of a Pillar, or building like as a Carpenter doth in the Architecture with a pair for Compasses: that, as then such Figures, in stead of loose and living motions (thorow the bendings in and out unto which some members are subject) shew and represent nothing but woody and stiff Hedg-stakes, agreeing excellent well to the Last upon which they are made.
Notwithstanding, I would not have this understood, that this knowledge in itself should be unprofitable; but we hold the contrary, that it is good, pleasant and necessary, if it be so that we have the right use of it; (for otherwise you may easily lose the well-becoming and pleasing beauty of the life, and over-look your self in all occasions, thorow manual and active Mensuration. Forasmuch as the use of this knowledge ought to have his exercise and practice in the understanding, and a requisit good judgment of the Master of the Work, which at another time I shall propound more clearer unto you and conclude with the words of that famous Picture-drawer and Sculptor Michel Angelo buonarotti; who said, A Picture-drawer in his Drawings must keep the Compasses in his Eyes, and not in his Hands.



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