Sunday 27 April 2014

Goeree, Chapter IX

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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Of the Use and Manner of Drawing.
Learners are counselled to follow their Principal.
IT is expedient, that Learners in drawing after Draughts should follow the manner and humour of their Principal, that in so doing they may beget a manner in drawing, which may stick and remain with them all their lifetime; and therefore in short we do intend to speak something that may tend to that end and purpose.-- 

Manner how to do.

Be it then that you hatch with the Pen, then take good heed you avoid scratching, and tender lean hatches, but rather endeavor to make your hatches somthing broad, and yet likewise must you fetch them from above downward, that is, from the fine or sharp to the broad; some flat and equal shades must be drawn with hatches equal in all parts, whether they be sharp and lean, or broad and full; 

How to hold your drawing Pen.

there is also a manner in holding the Pen, which is useful for you here, and also in all manner of drawings, viz. That you must accustom your self from your Infancie, to hold your Pen or Pastils somwhat long, and in holding to hold the same somewhat forward out, in such a manner, that the hinder part of your pastil in your hand come low by the ground, and not straight up, as is customary to hold the writing Pen, which is not Master-like, but a childish manner; a Master-like Practitioner holds his pastils streight forward, whereby he hath this benefit, That the Crion pastils become not so soon blunt; wherefore you must accustome your selves to turn the same in your hand drawing; and in so doing your pastils will wear, and remain to a point continually, so that you may draw a whole draught without scraping your pastil -----

Rouseling also is a good manner, and is not much different from hatching, only that it is close one in the other, without strokes or hatches must be doesled; and when after this manner you begin to shadow your draught; then you must begin to do it first faintly, smooth and even, and streight against the edges of the lights, in such sort, that it may appear as if it had bin washed with a Pencil; then you shade your draught, here and there doesling in the darkest shades further out, as in its place will be taught you; 
Rouseling alone not very graceful.

Hatching and doseling a good manner. 

but in regard, a draught don after this manner doth not appear very graceful, or Master-like, you shall return your draught here and there, with hatchings, and where any touches more are required, put in the same quick and nimble, and in so doing you will finde that this scetching will add a great grace unto your doesling, and you (in often working this way of doesling and hatching, the one upon the other) will beget a Master-like manner in drawing. Note also, that this sort of doseling is done with red or black Chalk, touching with the point thereof your draught easily all over, faintly, smooth and even, without touching the same, with cotton or rags put up in quils or such like.
Common mishap.
    There is also another manner of doesling, which is performed by cottons put in a quill, wherewith the shades are smutched or hatched, may be smoothed or doesled the one into the other; yet forasmuch as this manner of work is not so commendable, and much Master-like, I will not speak in the praise of it, but speak of somthing that I do dislike in the same, viz. doesling makes your Workmanship hard, stiff, and a breaking of the flat parts, except it should be in som small and curious things;


but if you please to bring any pleasantness, sweetness, or meltings in your draught, accustom your selves to smooth your Draught here and there (where occasion serves) a little with the top of your finger. For the custom of great Masters has bin to use but one thing in their hands at once, thorow which means also they have compleated their draught, without using cotton or such like: yet if any one would make something curious and neat, it would not be amiss to use the manner of doseling; but I would not have the Practitioner to accustom himself altogether thereunto.
Manner how to smooth som heightenings.

If any one draws Counterfeits principally upon coloured paper, the edges of the heightnings are smoothed a little, not with cotton or such like, but with the like coloured paper rouled up unto a sharp point at one end: and this way you may conveniently smooth, and make sweet any edges, that it may appear not too hard or sharp.


    Yet there is a singular, fair, and profitable manner, called Washing, performed with a Pencil dipt in ink, or any other sap, and so penciled or carried on upon all sorts of wet (white, LR) or coloured paper, and sufficient of it self to finish a whole ordinance. Secondly, you may wash therewith in any draught the principal flat shades, and afterward you may work over the same with the Pen or black Chalk loosely, which is a good and Master-like manner, and presents exceeding well.
In washing you shall observe this, That your proper and right known shadows are laid in at first weak, faint, smooth and even, without smoothing the same at the edges, except it be by a second stroke performed by a Pencil wetted a little with your tongue; for if you use much smoothing, you shall spoil your light Part, and your flat edges of your shades will appear ill-favoured. This now being dry, where you perceive that a darker shade must be, go that shade over, observing that you use your ink a little darker then the first was; or if you should use your ink of the same temperature (dilution, LR) with the former, that would do well enough, in regard that the first shade being dry, the second shade also the same temperature will set off sufficient; but if not, you may make your second shade darker, observing always not to make your work too hard at first, after this you may set some browner and harder touches without smoothing, feeling they differ not too much from the rest in darkness.--- The faint shades and things doubtful must be presented as faintly as can be possible; and principally upon coloured paper where the heightning helps you; you must also observe, that you go not too often over your shade with your moist Pencil; for to go over too often your shade will make your work too hard and ill-favoured.

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