Sunday 27 April 2014

Goeree, Chapter VII

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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Of those things, which in drawing after the life, are necessarie to be observed and understood.
The natural Life reacheth all things.
BEcause it is known that Nature and Life are sufficiently compleated in all things, and to imitate the least thing in it, requires a hand of the best Master, let this then spurr us on, also for to go to the life itself, being this above all is most necessarie to this purpose, set your time, and chuse a convenient place and a good Master, or for want of him be acquainted with some other Young man, that is pretty well entered in his Art, and agree to spend two days, or at least one day in a week to draw after the life, either under the oversight of a good Master
To chuse a College.
or in a Colledge of eight or ten young men, among which some at least are experienced to draw after the life. That may put you in the way, if you are out, and in the Colledge you shall evade the inspection of one to be anothers work, neither shall you spend your time vainly to dispraise another mans work, but you shall quietly and modestly stir up one another, and by good example precede the rest of your companions, in diligent observation and care, taking heed what you are about,
To what purpose.
shew also one another his faults, (according to the knowledge you have,) with all gentleness and humanitie to amendment of anothers judgement.
Place, light.
Model of what shape.
Having then made choice of a Colledge suitable to your desire, and agreeing with your business, then sit your self with unanimous consent, with a convenient place, and in it such a light as we have prescribed unto you in drawing after Plaister; further, make choice of a good and well-shap't man, which is to stand for you, get a man of a rustick body, broad of shoulders, of a fair breast, very well muscled, thick thighs, long legs, and of length reasonable for all, not too short, nor too thick, nor of a blunt head, and such a man in general is held to be a very good naked figure.
     You must also study a good manner to set your Model in a good action, and this you shall do by turns, and let him whose turn it is to set the Model, schitch upon paper aforehand his imaginations, not to spend too much time in vain about setting of the Model, except it be an action premeditated, or that which comes after the invention of some eminent Master, either in print, draught or picture, which after sight we have retained in our memory, yet in all this you shall use your libertie, and follow your desire.
Place, light.
    You must put your Model in a place of a convenient light, as is said of plaster-Rounds in winter time or cold weather you must use a stove at the charge of the Company, to keep your Model and your selves in a temperate heat.
Divers manners to set the Model in action.
    The actions that you will set your Model in, are commonly performed on the ground, but for to make or set particular actions, either sitting, lying, or actions of Devotions a table of convenient height is necessary, for upon the same the hanging down of the one or other member of the model, can be shewn artificially and Pleasant.
In all actions Members must make a Compact together.
What Principally is to be observed in the good actions.
    Observe also that in chusing your actions in your Model, the members make (as it were,) one compact, the one with the other, and this shall you do after this manner
    First, observe well that the head turn it self not to the sides of the breast, but elswhere, and in case it (the breast, LR) be turned to the right shoulder, then turn the head somewhat to the left side; and if the breast doth extend it self outward to the left, let the head turn to the right side, and the parts of the right shoulder must be higher then the parts of the left, and if the head looked upward then it must not lean further backward, but that the eyes may be seen; and in turning the head about, it must turn no further, but that the chin may just reach the shoulder; the shoulder which carries the burthen must always be the highest; and where the shoulder is lowest there the Hip must give out; put that Arm forward where the leg comes behind,
Examples of four footed beasts.
and where the leg comes forward there put the Arm backward, which then you may also observe in all four-footed beasts, and this in generall is the common good position of a figure, to make the members cross-ways to accord together, in turning of a figure forward, backward, or aside, you must counterpoize the same by the weight of some other Members,
The good Position Of a figure.
and keep it in his ballance, and in this knowledge is a great Matter, and cannot be attained without diligence; now the principal thing to be observed in setting or placing of a figure well, is that you place the head well upon the shoulders, and the breast well upon the Hips, and the Hips well upon the Feet,
Out of the tending of the Members to see what doth the figure.
and that the actions of the figure with all his Members be such, that a body may easily judge, where they will most express themselves, and this in short is that which principally I had to say concerning the good posture of a figure.
The manner how to sit to draw. 
You shall not look too much, or imitate anothers Draught.
Unskilful Drawers may place themselves with them that are experienced.
Take convenient place to sit in, of a reasonable distance, if the place will admit it (as I have taught in drawing after Plaister) some chuse to sit upon the ground, and some upon a stool, every one according to his liking, and according to his desire, to behold the figure, you shall not look too much into anothers draught, as if you would imitate the same, and leave the life; yet I should not reprehend, if he that is unskilful in drawing after the life, should place himself next unto a well-experienced draughts-man to see and observe his manner in drawing after the life, and be resolved by him now and then in his doubtings, that by this means he may come on the faster to be a draughts-man.
For what reason.
What is to be observed commonly.
The Model shall not stand too long in his action.
You shal take good heed in scetching of a figure, how each part doth agree with the whole. Secondly, upon the proportion. Thirdly, upon the action of a figure, and further, as we have taught herefore, having in some manner scetcht your figure, stay a while, that your Model may not be made too weary, and lose his action, or change it into another, and then after a little rest begin again, and further your draught, and bring it to a conclusion, of which we intend to give a general rule presently: 

only this we will touch with a word, that when you have circumscribed your whole Figure with all possible diligence, that then you chuse a part (of which you are most desirous, and upon which you will employ most of your study) for to perfect the same, by reason you have set that with the rest in a good shape: otherwise, you shall not easily, either in particular, or in the whole, finish and compleat the Members, because time many times will not suffer to draw a whole figure, except they be such that are sure and well expert in their drawings. 

To learn to draw compleatly
It shall also be more profit unto you to draw half a figure, or a quarter part thereof naturally and compleat, then a whole Figure that is in the whole imperfect; yet you shal strive to do the same by degrees, more bold, certain and sure, which must be obtained this and no other way. Here also we might observe how to draw after the life by Night-light, but this being spoken of where we taught to draw after stature of Plaister, or any other round bodies, we thought it here a needless repetition, but refer the Practitioner thither. My counsel also is, that a Practitioner should some time, as his convenience will best admit,
To draw Landskips
go in the Countrey and draw some Landskips after the life, that so he may have an universal knowledge, and become a general Master, understanding the draught of all things.

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