Sunday, 27 April 2014

Goeree, Chapters XI, XII, XIII, XIV

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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What light and shadows be, and how thorow the same all things come to have their being.
IT would be in vain to make a further progress in our Instruction, unless we understand first the nature and virtue of lights and shades, for there are no things in nature which can be distinguisht by us in a lesser or a further distance from us, much less can be expressed by the Art of drawing without this knowledge, for without dark and light nothing can be made like, or to resemble unto, or after that, which it ought to resemble, so that by consequence the lights and shades gives a being and representation unto all things; and to prove this, draw a counterfeit upon white paper with black Chalk, laying aside all sorts of Colours or Crions, then you and others shall judge that the Counterfeit is well drawn, and the likeness good. (I speak of one that is fit and well-experienced in such things.)--- Here is asked, what correspondence hath black chalk wherewith you made your shades, and the white paper, thorow which is represented the light of your counterfeit, which have lively colours, and being of that same, after whom you took your draught, that such a lively picture so like should be made; this likeness is not caused thorow the circumference or out-stroke; it is not the black chalk, nor the white paper, neither any single strokes drawn; 

Lights and shades can express all things.
but it is only the lights and shades properly set in their places, with such a just and equal ballance as can be imaginable, and the life it self; (after which we have taken our draught) doth represent unto us, for it is impossible, that either a round circle, or a round spot of flat colour should represent a Globe, except the roundness and likeness of the same should be given him, by shadowing and heightening; also thorow the circumferent or circular stroke, the generality of the Globe might be discerned, as may be apprehended out of the foregoing chapter, but without observing the roundness of the same on every side. --- 

General shadow.
Shadows upon shadows.
It is also to be observed, that in the shadowing, a generality is to be observed, thorow which means many things may be seen divers ways, as in great even shadows, in the which many times more or less darknesses are hid principally, if you behold them close by, but standing at some distance, then the same changes in a general Mass, or a flat even shadow, upon which (in your drawings, and in observing the shadowed parts) you must take provident and direct care, that in your drawings the general darkness of your shades be not spoiled, by some meaner or lesser interwoven darknesses, making them either too hard or too soft, and so also must you do concerning light.

Of the Plain, smooth, sharp, and sweet drawing.
Learners abhorre plain drawing.
HAving said sufficient of the lights and shadows, and their virtue: it seemeth necessary also to say something of the plain, smooth, sharp and sweet drawing, for in respect that Learners are most of that temper and condition, to have (in the beginning of their drawings) and abhorring of plain and smooth drawing and so use and habit themselves to draw hard and stiff; which to avoid, let them with great patience and indefatigable labor, strive to get the best manner of drawing; and although in the beginning they do not please us, it matters little, for none is born a Master; and he can never be expected to do well that never did do ill; we learn from day to day, we amend from day to day, and all is for to become a compleat and well-experienced Drawer, which consisted in that, that a Drawer at once draws plain, smooth and sharp, and yet finishes all sweet, so that the shadows and lights seem to melt the one into the other, all which we hope to demonstrate clearly unto you.
Plain drawing then, is to lay all the shades plain and even, whether it be by hatching or smutching, after such a sort that the edges round about keep within the pale of their drawings, and that it may clearly appear that for a circumscribed figure such a shadow have, and have sides roundabout not to vanish away in one unpaled fuzziness, or blurr; in which the sharpness and the edgings of their form cannot be seen; and to obtain this, you shall observe not to make your shades at first too hard. Secondly; that you do not put one shadow upon the other too dark, neither too strong, but always a little differing the one with the other, then you shall at once have plain, soft and smooth drawing; but putting your shades too dark or hard one upon the other, than your work presently will become hard and stiff. -- Plain drawing and sweet drawing is subject to both.-- By drawing too sweet you make your draught too fuzzy; and by drawing hard and sharp you make your draught too stiff; but to choose out of two evils, it will be better to draw plain, and that which is somwhat stiff, then to draw smooth and soft, the which is a childish manner of drawing, and brings him to fuzziness; for stiffness thorow the means already shewn you will easily overcom if you take diligent heed thereunto, likewise have a care whether you smutch, rousel, dosle or wash not to pass one thing too often for by that means you com many a time to lose your plain and even drawing, and what is here said of the shades, the same must also be observed of the light and strong heightenings.

Of the Heightenings.
THE Heightenings are those parts in a draught, where the highest parts thereof are represented to be, and whereupon the day doth give his utmost light; which if we draw upon white paper, then for the uttermost light is left the white paper, for a higher light then that is not to be had, and for the lesser light it must be a little faintly shadowed, and the rest work out proportionably; as it is becoming; but upon coloured paper, white crion, and Tobaccho-pipe-clay are used for the first and second heightnings, putting each in his due and proper places, according to more or less light required, which operation hath a singular and great power in this manner of drawing, wherefore it is necessary that good heed should be taken there in, -- in the operation then of that , you shall take heed that you heighten not in too many places. Secondly, that you do not heighten any thing more than is fitting. thirdly, you shall not heighten too near the dark or shadows, neither too near any out-line or circumferent stroke, except it be accidental to make some reflection, otherwise they shew hard and stiff. Fourthly, that you make your heights not sharp and flat, and in places that admits of much heightning, put the greatest light in the middle, and the lesser toward the edges, for to beget the better rounding. Fifthly, take care for to leave conveninent faints of the ground of your paper, between your heightnings and shades, which will give a great lustre to your heightnings and shadows, and will cause a singular plainness and evenness, as I will yet make appear in another place.


Of the Reflection.
Reflections wheron they fall most.

Reflection by what occasioned.
SOmetimes (according to the condition of the work) appear some lights in the shadows upon the edges of round bodies, and principally upon such bodies, which are made smooth, evenner and most glassie, or glittering, as silver and gold or other bright metals, as is that same from whence that light is occasioned, and this is called Reflection. It is commonly occasioned out of this, viz. That if the upper plain be struck with any light, then doth it reflect upon the next shadowed body, which is opposite unto it,
Use not too much of reflection.
Not to make reflection without cause.
and although this gives a Ornament to a Draught yet shall you be circumspect no to use too much of it, for it causes a glittering like brass or copper: be it then, that whether you draw after Plaister, or after the life, always take head to that, that the reason of your actings always may be found therein; that is, that the caus of more or less reflection, or no reflection at all, compleatly may be seen and discerned.

Of the Observation of Perspective of light and dark.
Necessitie of observation.
THAT which in a draught or picture, is most needful to the observation of Perspective of dark and light, (causing a draught or picture to be like in all things unto the compleat nature it self) and this being wanting, then such a draught or picture is held irrational and dead: there then we will declare what it is, and how it must be gained: this observation then, (that I may express the sense and meaning and working of the same) is that which causes all things contained in a draught or picture, to com forward or sink backward, and cause all things from the first to the last to stand in their due and proper places; and the vacuitie or emptiness (between body and body) to go from you, or to come to you forward, naturally to the eye, as if it was accessible by feet, and for this cause it is called Perspective observation: 

and like as one in Perspective doth observe the distance which every Colume hath, the one after the other, and also the standing of every Colume in his proper and singular place; even so (in a draught or picture, throw the diminution of dark and light) must be observed the distance agreeable to the appropriated declination, and place of everything be it then that you draw after a draught, Plaister-figure, the life or picture, 

What you shuld take heed of in your observation.
you must then (for to beget a good observation) take care what appeareth forward, and what backward, or how one thing followeth the other. Secondly, you must observe by what means they appear forward, or go backward; whether it comes to pass throw dark or light, and thorow what degree of more or less dark or light it comes forward or backward, 

Dark comes forward as well as light. 
for the dark can as well (as the light) according to proportion (it is strong or weak) com forward as go backward; so that in this as one of the difficultest studies belonging to the Art of Drawing and Painting, good heed is to be taken with all care and diligence. And although this instruction in writing in Practitioner cannot very well be taught, I will nevertheless put forward this lection in a word to the Learner, for to show a mean in general to a good observation. In drawing, then take good heed hereunto, that in your diminution of dark and light, you make such a distinction, as is betwixt your lesser light and your coloured paper, upon which commonly you draw with white Crion; thus shall you gain a good observation in your drawings and paintings of going backward, and coming forward.

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