transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept
An introduction to the general art of drawing.
A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)
Of the several sorts of Chalks and Crions for the Use of Drawing, and upon what they are to be used.
Black lead good for to scetch withal, principally for Masters, that are sure in their drawing.
IT is commonly customary, that Beginners begin first to draw with Charcoal, being very commodious, not only to young Practitioners, but even to good masters themselves, which in drawing are very perfect and experienced by reason that whatsoever is drawn therewith, and is not according to our minde and purpose, may easily be wip't out, and drawn over again. Practitioners use also black lead, therewith to scitch their Figures, and work the same out afterward with Crion, and other things usual to drawing; nevertheless, this is more fit for Masters then Practitioners, and therefore more necessary to get first the use of Charcoal well, before they attempt the use of black chalk. The other sort wherewith you must perfect your draughts are several, and every one makes choice of that which pleases him most. Some use red chalk, and in like manner black chalk is very commodious; but it is difficult to get that which is good, commonly it has two faults, which are tedious to Practitioners; the one fault is, that it is short, weak and brittle; the other that it is hard and stonie; yea, that which is somthing good comes often to be so hard; thorough the heat of the hand, that it becomes useless, some put it in a cellar, others lay it in the ground with salt, that it might remain soft; in buying buy that which has some yellow spots upon it like brimstone, and which doth taste saltish and sourtish, and is smooth in cutting. Others draw with the Pencil, which is called washing and is done with several saps, viz. Ink, Sut of wood-smoke, Ground-Indico, East-India Ink, Ground red chalk, and such like, which are all good in washing of Draughts, especially for them that know how to use them.
Others draw with wet Chalk Pencils for sureties sake, others with writing Pens, which I do not so well approve of, except it be that such who draw with a writing-Pen have an intention to become Engravers upon Copper; but for them that desire to become painters or Picture-drawers, I count it time idle spent; And although the same has bin in use with a great many great Masters, you shall know that such Masters did use the same for to represent their Figures readily and boldly, and with great and bold scetchings, using also in stead of the writing-Pen, a Pen made out of a Reed, such as here with us we use to cover houses withal. This Reed-Pen is also useful to draw Landskips withal, and has a singular loosness, especially for them that knows how to use them Master-like, with good dexterity; --
Whereupon to draw.
Use.commonly they use them with sut and water, and also with common Ink, or East-India Ink, as is to be noted in draughts of old Masters, of Bandio Baccianello, Titian, and others of that time. ---
Charcoal dipt in Linseed-oyl.
One or two houres.Beside all these, some use also the Charcoal dipt in Linseed-oyl, but must be used quickly and readily, and therefore fit for great things, but for small and curious things unfit and unprofitable; And these charcoal Pencils most commonly are laid one houre or two in Linseed-oyl (before they use them,) and after they are taken out of the oyl they must be well wip't, and so use them presently; note also, that they must be somthing long, for they wear away presently, and become quickly useless.
Coloured CrionsThey use also a second sort in drawing for to heighten withal, if they draw upon coloured Paper; and this is made of Tobaccho-pipe clay, which being soft is rolled to the length of a finger; and being dried, either of themselves, or in the Sun, are fit for use; and for stronger heightning you may use white Chalk, and it is necessary to give here and there a stronger heightning; You also may use this Tobaccho-pipe-clay, to make all sorts of Crions of it. Thus take tobaccho-pipe-clay, and with a little water temper in the same what colour you please, according to the height you think fit, and as much as you think the clay may bear, and work it well together, and make Pastils of it, and let them dry as aforesaid, then they will be fit for to shew here and there the colours, either in scetches, draughts, or whole Ordinances; Others do this with old size, gums, and such like; but those often prove too hard and not useful: and this may serve as concerning the diversities, wherewithal the Practitioner may exercise himself with in his drawings, without prescribing any more otherwise, for making or using of stuffs to draw withal.
how to make them.
how to make them.
Whereupon to draw.
Coloured paper.Now only I will say something whereupon to draw with those several sorts above specified, and conclude this chapter. To draw upon white paper is the most usual, commodious, and common way or manner; though some use Parchment, Table-books, and other things; but we will remain by the white paper; upon white paper you may scetch, wash, and draw with all sorts of water-colour; you may dozel upon the same dry colours with a little cotton upon a quill; but in regard to the white Crion cannot be used upon white paper, therefore papers of several colours are made, as gray paper, yellow, red, rose-coloured paper, blew paper, or what they may please your fancie best: these several colours, and other- what pleases you best, you may grind with water, adding thereunto a little size, and with a sponge dipt in it, give the white paper what colour you please, and being dry draw upon it, and upon this coloured paper the white Pastils have great power in drawing, especially to them that know how with judgement to apply them; of which hereafter we intend to instruct you further.