Sunday, 31 August 2014

Gem carving

(Update: for my newest intaglio carvings and "etruscan" chains click and follow HERE)

My copy after a circa 300 BC gem from 
Ionic Greece (Hermitage). March 2016

I've always loved ancient Greek and Roman glyptic art and have been very curious about carving in general, but I have never tried it.  When an opportunity came to take a class with a master gem engraver Chavdar Chushev, I was thrilled.

Ancient carvers worked with a simple machine using oil and emery powder slurry to carve the gems (mostly chalcedony and agate):
  
C. Chushev's reconstruction of ancient carving tools at Carlos Museum.

For my intaglios I used a binocular microscope and an electric rotary tool with sintered diamond bits and a continuous water supply instead.



Here are my results so far:

My first intaglio, Pegasus (agate).


Omphale, carnelian.
This was a freehand copy after a larger Roman gem.



A cupid riding a panther, carnelian intaglio





An engagement ring commission on chrysoprase in 2015




Head of Zeus Olympios intaglio on carnelian and impression,
in progress March 2016


If you are interested to see the entire process from the rough mineral to the finished gem, here is Chavdar Chushev's carving video made for the Getty:




More photos of the process:

Special wax melted onto a dop stick to attach the gem
that is prepared on a heating surface on the left.
The box on the right contains sintered diamond bits of all shapes and sizes.



Once the gem was on the dop stick, I sketched the design using diamond point and silverpoint and blocked the main shapes in with large round diamond bits.  
Further work was done using smaller round, wheel- and cone-shaped bits.

The biggest difficulty was not being able to see well because water obscures the view as you carve, though not as much as the thick oil and abrasive slurry, which I will try using later.  Another difficulty is learning to control the rotating tool especially when making curved lines.


***


In parallel I have also tried my hand at caving miniature black coral sculptures using the rotary tool with steel burs, abrasive wheels, nylon brushes, and polishing wheels and compounds.  This was my first time sculpting in the round. 








Cat and rabbit miniature sculptures in black coral

***

Monday, 28 April 2014

"An Introduction to the General Art of Drawing" by Willem Goeree. Full text.



In 1668 Willem Goeree (1635-1711) published an influential treatise on drawing, Inleydinge tot de Al Ghemeene Teycken-Konst.  In comparison to the treatise of Leonardo which it borrows from, it contains an unusually large amount of technical information about drawing materials and techniques.  It also deals with interesting practical matters of learning and teaching drawing, that other treatises don't touch upon.  The book in Dutch was republished and reworked several times and translated to German and English in the 1600s and later. I also find bits and pieces of its text used in numerous other drawing manuals and treatises (e.g. Salmon, de Piles, Jombert) without a mention of Goeree's authorship.

I have transcribed and posted the 1674 English translation keeping the original spelling.  There are three illustrations in the text.  I substituted them with corresponding plates from editions of Goeree publicly available on-line.  

This English translation also contains many plates at the end that I haven't included because of their copyright status.  These plates don't appear in Goeree books in Dutch or German. They represent the traditional drawing book repertoire: eyes, noses, mouths, hands, feet, faces, and whole figures, most of them rather unrefined copies of well-known drawing book prints (I could recognise Fialetti, Palma il Giovane, Reni, Cousin, maybe Bloemaert and Guercino; others I have not yet identified). 

I've done this project on my own and without feedback, so I will appreciate any comments, corrections, suggestions and any other input.   I would also be happy with a greeting from anyone who studies this subject.



Illustration from a 1678 German edition (digitized here)
________________________________________________________

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE GENERAL ART OF DRAWING 
(for full name see title page)


CHAPTER I
What the Art of Drawing is, and in what it doth consist 

list of side notes:
Wherein the Art of Drawing doth consist. 
The Art of Drawing necessary to all men.
Principally to Picture-drawers.
The Art of Drawing is the soul  of the art of Painting. 
The Art of Drawing needeth the whole man
The Art of Drawing ought to have his Fundamental Rules as well as other Arts.
In the instruction you must go from step to step
A Simile or Similitude.
You must begin for the first step and go not the second before you well understand the first.
The Art of Drawing, beloved of all men.
The first Mover in this desire which comes of a natural inclination
Parents ought to observe the natural inclination of their children.
How you may know whether a child be born to the Art of Drawing or not.
Drawers and Picture Drawers must be of a singular nature.
Similitude.
What a young Learner must do.
How instruction is given.

Observation of this introduction
The Learner must apply himself to a good Master
Wherefore?


CHAPTER II

The first Beginning of the Art of Drawing.
 

The first exercise.
Perspective.
The first beginnings are about some particular Members.
Faces subject to most changes.
Oval.

What the Oval doth signifie.
Reason wherefore this Cross in the Oval is not understood of the young Learner.
A great fault.

Means to understand to draw with judgment all manner of faces.
A Fore-right face.
a 3/4 face
A face looking downward
A face looking upward.
A side face 
The profit that comes by the manner of this instruction.
Good Masters not always good Teachers


CHAPTER III
Of the Order and Manner to be Observed in the Art of Drawing.
 

First step. To draw after Draughts very profitable
Second step.  To draw after Pictures. Requires greater judgement. For what reason

The third Step.
A good Figure necessary to draw after.
The reason

The fourth Step
Perswasion to much drawing.
Example to others.
Custom in Rome
This should invite us to imitation.

CHAPTER IV
Of those things which in every degree of the Art of Drawing are necessary to be observed.
 

Drawing after Draughts.
Drawing after a Picture.
How to place a picture.
Distance.
Put your Principal right before you

The beginning of a Draught.
You must assure your self of every stroke.

With patience your must overcome your passions.
The Actions must appear as first in your scetzing.

To use care, thus in drawing a Schetz neater, that you lost not the action. 
Confer your draught with your principal.
Faulss (as soon as seen) to correct.
Better is one good Draught, then 100 without observation
You must sometimes behold your work with a fresh eye.
How it comes to pass that we better discern faults. 
Reason wherefore
Example


CHAPTER V 

Of the things which in the third Step, viz. in Drawing after Plaister-Rounds, or Embossed Works, are necessary to be observed.

To chuse a good light to draw after Plaister-Rounds.
Means how to amend the light.
At what height you shall chuse your light.
Night-light.
How to use the same.
Night-light giveth hard shades.
Remedy

What distance to use in sitting.
To observe how the parties the one under the other do appear.


CHAPTER VI

Of the anatomie, or Knowledge of the inward and outward forme of the Humane body, concerning Muscles and Motions of the Arteries.
 

To know Anatomy necessary.
Profitable.
Abuse.
Means to exercise themselves herein.
Anatomy in Plaister
Divers Books of Anatomy.
From the Books go to the life.
Not to make all Muscles.
Wherefore.
In what part you must observe your Muscles most.
Wherefore
Fat bodies have small Muscles.
Fair bodies must not be muscled hard.
Wherefore.

Of Muscles, many changes.
In what parts the most changes are incident.


CHAPTER VII
Of those things, which in drawing after the life, are necessarie to be observed and understood.
 

The natural Life reacheth all things.
To chuse a College
To what purpose
Place, light.
Model of what shape.
Place, light.
Divers manners to set the Model in action.
In all actions Members must make a Compact together. 
What Principally is to be observed in the good actions.
Examples of four footed beasts.
The good Position Of a figure.
Out of the tending of the Members to see what doth the figure.
The manner how to sit to draw. You shall not look too much, or imitate anothers Draught. 
Unskilful Drawers may place themselves with them that are experienced
For what reason. 
What is to be observed commonly. 
The Model shall not stand too long in his action.
Wherefore
Observation
To learn to draw compleatly
To draw Landskips


CHAPTER VIII

Of the several sorts of Chalks and Crions for the Use of Drawing, and upon what they are to be used.
 

Charcoal.
Black lead good for to scetch withal, principally for Masters, that are sure in their drawing.
Red chalk.
Black chalk.
Faults
Use.
Charcoal dipt in Linseed-oyl.
One or two houres.
Tobaccho---Pipe-clay.
White Chalk
Coloured Crions how to make them
Whereupon to draw

White Paper.
Coloured paper.


CHAPTER IX
Of the Use and Manner of Drawing.
 

Learners are counselled to follow their Principal
Manner how to do.
How to hold your drawing Pen.
Rouseling
Rouseling alone not very graceful.
Hatching and doseling a good manner.
Doesling.
Common mishap.
Remedie.
Manner how to smooth som heightenings.
Washing.

Use.

CHAPTER X

Of the General and his Parts, and how they must be understood and observed.
 

What Parts and Generals are.
Use
How to see them.
For what reason.
Example
Distinction.
Parts also have a generality in themselvs, altho' they are Part to the general.
Example.
Likeness of things dwelleth most in the general.
Example.
2 Example.

Contrapositio.

CHAPTER XI
What light and shadows be, and how thorow the same all things come to have their being.
 

Lights and shades can express all things.
Lights and Shades can express all things.
Prove.
General shadow.
Shadows upon shadows.


CHAPTER XII
Of the Plain, smooth, sharp, and sweet drawing.
 

Learners abhorre plain drawing.

CHAPTER XIII

Of the Heightenings.

CHAPTER XIV
Of the Reflection.
 

Reflections wheron they fall most.
Reflection by what occasioned.

Use not too much of reflection.
Wherefore.
Not to make reflection without cause.


CHAPTER XV
Of the Observation of Perspective of light and dark.
 

Necessitie of observation.
Similitude.
What you shuld take heed of in your observation
Dark comes forward as well as light.


CHAPTER XVI (one illustration)

Of the Circumferent or out-stroke, and his looseness and a good Position, as also of keeping of their Parts.
 

Scetch.
Circumferent stroak.

Strokes on the side of the light to make sweet.
Draughts must be drawn without circumferent strokes,
The life is without strokes.
Example
Strokes you must not draw till necessitated.
Small things are drawn without strokes, and appear as if they were.


CHAPTER XVII
Of the Finishing of a Draught.
 

Profit of this observation.
Heightenings never to make so high as the highest wont.
Observation
In Pictures dark and light difficult to distinguish.
Wherefore.


***
An Addition


PLATES (see my introduction above)



 

Sunday, 27 April 2014

Goeree: Title page, Introduction



An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of 
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)
Transcript by Lala Ragimov



AN
INTRODUCTION

TO THE
General Art
of 

DRAWING
Wherein is set forth
The Grounds and Properties, which of this infallible
and judicious ART are necessary to be
known and understood.

BEING
Not only Profitable unto them that Practise Drawing;
VIZ.
Picture-Drawers, Engravers, Carvers, Stone-Cutters,
Jewellers, Goldsmiths, Silversmiths,
&c.

But Also
To all Lovers and well-affected, as well to this as to other ARTS (flow-
ing from thence) a commodious Knowledge Communicated: With
an Illustration of twenty five Copper-Prints of Figures,
for young Learners to practise by.
LIKEWISE
An Excellent Treatise of the Art of Limning, in the which the true Grounds, and the perfect Use of Water-Colours, with all their Properties, are clearly and perfectly taught.

___________________________________________________________________

Formerly set out by that Excellent Limner Mr. GERHARD of Brugge.    And now much
Augmented and Amended, with some Observations, teaching (besides Illumination)
the Colouring and Painting with Water-Colours.
Set forth at Middleburgh by W. GORE.  Truly Translated into English by J.L.   Published
by ROBERT PRICKE for the Lovers and Practitioners of this Noble and 

Admirable ART.
___________________________________________________________________


LONDON.
Printed for Rob. Pricke, and are to be sold at his Shop Adjoyning to Cripple-Gate within :
Where likewise is very good Choice of Italian, French, Dutch and English Prints 1674.




***
 ___________________________________________________________ 

To the Lovers and well-affected to the Art of Drawing.

IT will not be necessary to detain you with a long Prologue, or to make the Noble Art of Drawing more Palletable in dressing of it, with many elegant, Rhetorical and Figurative speeches, because it is by all men of sound judgement in that esteem that she needeth not in the least those kind of Palliations; it is known sufficiently that all men want and stand in need of the Art of Drawing, being as a Fountain from whence all and singular the other Arts do flow and proceed; and although they may not stand in need of the daily practice or exercise of Drawing; yet if the knowledge and the Ground-Rules belonging unto that Art, none should be ignorant of, for the reason aforesaid; and therefore at all times I much have admired, that among so many brave, known, well-experienced, esteemed and renowned Artists, there has bin none found to undertake that labour and travel, as to bring forth somthing unto the world, touching the profitable and infallible instruction in the Art of Drawing; but not of Figures only, Drawing-books, and innumerable images, (of which the world is full) which to the young scholars, (Pict re-drawers, Silver-smiths, Glass-Painters, Carvers and Stone-Cutters, which commonly do meet in the Art of Drawing afar off, and beget a horror and aversion to understand the same judicially and fundamentally) are given to draw after, and Ape-like to imitate, just as Parrots are taught to speak; but that thorow judicial, infallible and incontradictory Reasons according to a certain Rule in the which the Art of Drawing now in our days doth flourish, and hath set forth some light in the dark understandings of the young Practitioners, might arise, and to continue the same light; and communicate the same to all Posterity (as their heir) after them.
    This (to speak plain) hath moved me, for to finish that, which others (whom it would have becom far better in respect of their office and place) have left undone: and to bring forth unto the view of the World this short Introduction to the Art of Drawing in general, not that I intend hereby to gain unto me great commendations and praises, but that (besides the benefit hereby intended unto youth) others (whom God and Nature hath indued with a greater talent of knowledge,) might not bury their better knowledge herein in the grave of Oblivion, but put and give forth the same to their Neighbor, considering that sentence,
Non nobis tantum natifumus sed etiam Posteritati; like as we then also have no sinister ends in this, but only the sole good, benefit and profit of the young Practitioner.
Hoping that in case I have bin so happy, as to have (thorow a clear and judicious expression of my sense and meaning, done any good and profit to the publick, you would be pleased favourably to accept of it; and if it falls out otherwise, I acknowledge however, that I have spared no labour to set forth this Book with as few words as possibly my ability would permit, and therefore I desire that this my 

***

short lesson may be read and read again; and then according to the cast which the Ballance of infallible Reason will give, may be judged, and finde your favourable acceptance.  Be not offended with the common stile, neither the strange words, for I have used such as are proper to the Art, and makes the nearest expressions of my meaning.
    I expect then, that this small labor which I have bestowed to pass away time, and taken as a repose from my daily and usual employment, to the good and benefit of all Lovers of the Art of Drawing, will be favourably accepted of and that it will be made use of with profit, in the exercise of the Art, that we seeing your good inclination to this small Introduction, might thereby be spurred on (if God be pleased to grant us health) to write some further thing of the Art of Painting also, of which very little is written, and that not in our Mother-tongue, which can add anything to the daily exercise, or give any certain rules how best to further that Art of Painting.
    Although I am not ignorant, that some things is come forth appertaining to this study, and the same such as carry the name of the light of Painting, and the Art of Drawing in the Front, which has many Exemplars of Heads, Armes and Legs, Academy Figures, and other Proportions measured according to the Proportion of the Five Orders of Columes; and beside those, Exemplars of all sorts of Beasts.

    But how sleightly, and with what little care is written of the same, let those judge, that have the right and full knowledge of the Art; being certain, that no less then the property of the same is thought in it: so that till now, little profit is conveyed thereby to the young Practitioners, wherein the secret Mysteries, Power and Propertie of the Art of Painting, naked and clear, is discovered, which then was most necessary, neither is it to be doubted, but that many with earnest desire do long after it.
    Nevertheless, I hope that such shall have once their desires answered, for to that end and purpose I have already many rare an choice pickt-out observations, and profitable lessons, concerning which I have made a rude draught, wherein the reasonable content (of Drawing, Building, Measuring, Perspective, Ordination, Invention, or Composing of Histories, ordering of Figures, dismembring of Figures; of Muscles, Actions, Motions, good Position, Beautie, Proportion, Measure, expression of Passions, even them of the heart, cloding, Presentation of the natural life, and in them the becoming incidents, Landskips, far-off Prospects, Skies, Storms, Sun-shines, Lights, Shadows, Reflections, Colouring, Observations of strong and faint, Disputes, outwardbendings, besides dissolving of many speculative questions, and all things which further appertained to that excellent and most famous Art of Painting,) shall be put forth in one easie and rational Method, and demonstrated with infallible reasons and figures, in such a manner, that none to this day has yet produced the like; use this in the mean-while, as a fore-Runner of that which I intend to bring forth to the publicke view of the World.

 
VALE.








Goeree, Chapter I

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

 <<Previous Chapter            Table of Contents            Next Chapter>>

____________________________________________


CHAP. I.

What the Art of Drawing is, and in what it doth consist.

THE ART of Drawing, (of which very little for fundamental Instruction i(s) written, of which notwithstanding never can be written sufficient enough) may justly be called a bearing Mother of all Arts and Sciences whatever, for whatsoever is made begets thorow the same a good Aspect and well-being; and besides all this, the Art of Drawing is the Beginning and End, or Finisher of all things imaginable, wherefore she may be called a Sense of Poesie, a Second Nature, a Living Book of all things past. She is called a Poesie, because that she thorow falshoods and masked faces, represents unto the Beholder the Truth of things present and past, and by pleasant resemblances makes us in a manner believe to see that, which indeed we see not. A Second Nature she is called, because she teacheth thorow Drawings, to imitate and to set forth all the Works of the Creation. A Living Book she is called, of things present and past; because that she brings into remembrance the beholder of her, thinks long since past, so that at sight, or the least Aspect of any praise-worthy History (in our minde, and in our understanding) we receive a profitable exercise, a fair invitation to imitate their laudable Acts, and a Pleasure in beholding; and more then this, she brings to remembrance the deeds of People and Nations, dead long since; and the features and resemblance of our Fathers, Grandfathers, and great Grandfathers, she represents as living in dead shades long after their time.

Wherein the Art of Drawing doth consist.

The Art of Drawing doth consist in this, that she (by means of Drawing, Shades and Heightnings, all shapes and forms that are in being, or imaginable) doth express in plain, as if they were really those things which they only represent.

The Art of Drawing necessary to all men.

The knowledge of this Art is necessary to all men, let them be of what trade or science whatsoever, and not only to those that are necessitated thorow the same, to procure their daily subsistence; but she is necessary to be known and understood of all men, as I said before; and therefore she, as the Rudder of a Ship, giveth judgement and reason about all proposals distinctively, and produceth the end of her intended work to appear in a compleatness.

Principally to Picture-drawers.

Forasmuch then as she is so necessary, having the seed of all Arts and Sciences inclosed in her womb, who then will not judge that she must be the beginning and end of that famous and high-esteemed Art of Picture-drawing: certainly she is useful in all Sciences, but here she is most necessary: here she must do all, here she must be the soul that giveth life to the Art of Picture-drawing.

The Art of Drawing is the soul of the art of Painting.


For as the soul dwelleth in a man, and makes the body amiable and pleasant, so likewise the Art of Drawing maketh the Art of Painting have life and lively representations; and as much as the soul liveth without the body, but the body without the soul is dead; so likewise the Art of Drawing can live in a compleat draught, without Painting, but painting without drawing is dead; and in short, as the soul and body maketh a perfect man, so the Art of Drawing and the Art of painting produceth a famous picture, nevertheless, it is, and remains indisputable, that the Art of Drawing doth surpass the Art of painting (each Art in particular by it self considered) by far.

The Art of Drawing needeth the whole man

Now forasmuch as the Art of Drawing extendeth it self very far, and containeth in her self many, not imaginable mysteries and secrets, and therefore requireth the entire judgement of the whole and sole man; for to learn to understand the same judicially, it is requisite therefore that young Learners receive a short and easie introduction, but judicial, and that the Instructors, (forasmuch as may be possible) shew and teach their young Learners the properties and peculiar Observations belonging to this Art, so naked and clear, that even the dullest and stupids of wit and understanding, might reap good benefits thereby in time, tempore & labore.

The Art of Drawing ought to have his Fundamental Rules as well as other Arts.

For this art ought not to be wanting in this, less then other Arts and Sciences are, which have their Books, Beginnings and Fundamental Rules:

In the instruction you must go from step to step

And in respect, that the manner of instruction is a great matter, I have purposed to proceed slowly, by degrees, from step to step, judging this to be the easiest and the best way: for it is certain, that in all the operations of our senses, none is more ready then the sense of feeling, which in a moment discloseth things innumerable, yet in such a manner, that it doth distinguish but one at once:

A Simile or Similitude.


By example, if you with the opening of your eyes cast your eyes upon this leaf of writing, you shall be able to judge, that the whole leaf is fill'd with many and sundry Letters, without observing what letters they be, or what they express; so that it is necessary the same to reade from word to word, and from line to line, before you can understand or judge of the contents of the same.

You must begin for the first step and go not the second before you well understand the first.


In the same manner, I speak to all such as by nature are inclined unto this Art, and have a desire to attain to a compleat understanding in this Art of Drawing, that they make their beginning from the extremest parts, and keep such a rational order in the same, as not to step from this to a second, before the first be well-known and judicially understood and performed by them.

The Art of Drawing, beloved of all men.


It is known also, and daily experience doth teach us, that most men even from their youth, love the Art of Drawing, so that we may behold children compelled by natural inclination to draw shapes of man and beast, and many times draw such things which causes many times great admiration in us; but notwithstanding that this Art is pleasant to all men, yet is she difficult in her Perfection, because she undertakes to do all things: so by consequence a man must understand every thing to that Art appertaining.

The first Mover in this desire which comes of a natural inclination.

Therefore desire must possess here in the first place, viz. such a desire, which together with a good disposition of a natural inclination, is well-affected to this Art, in respect then that Children in their youth by nature are inclined to something more particular then afterward they will be.

Parents ought to observe the natural inclination of their children.

How you may know whether a child be born to the Art of Drawing or not.

The parents therefore should diligently observe the natural inclination of their young children, forasmuch as it is not in the power of the young children, neither in the power of the Parents to make of them a good Draughtsmen, much less good Limners or Picture-drawers, but onely to make notice how by nature they are inclined toward the same; I say therefore, that if the Childrens Practice come from some natural instinct or inclination, they may promise unto us something that is good; not as we behold them playing, and without pain or trouble to draw out anything with single-strokes, but when we observe them to be inclined that, which they out of their head, have drawn to shadow and to lightning also, and so to continue to the finishing of that work: And those we call Drawers and Picture-Drawers born by nature.

Drawers and Picture Drawers must be of a singular nature.

Similitude.

What a young Learner must do.

 
In respect then, that in the beginning as well as in the ending of this study, they must be of a singular nature, viz. of a gentle, quiet and speculative spirit, devoutly observing all things before him, ruminating in himself how he shall remember, and keep in remembrance at least the best figures as are presented to his view, doing by imagination like a Looking-Glass, which changes himself in such a form as is put before him, and thus represents a Second Nature, therefore a young learner as would make a good Progress in this Art, must use himself to have his thoughts continually occupied, and make so many projections, and several inventions of Figures in his brain, as he meets withal, and are worthy the beholding. Then he must use himself to stay, for to see the same in a better posture, enclining the same by his draught to some common rules, well observing the business, plane, circumstances, light, and shade, whereof in this place I shall teach further and plainer.

How instruction is given.

This exercise doth consist in two general Members: the one is the Instruction, the other is the practice of the Learner; the Instruction is done by a Master of the Nature; after that, the life is the instruction it self; the instruction of the Master is by word of mouth, or active shewing the Learner by drawing

Observation of this introduction.

before him, or likewise of writing: by the last of these we intend to shew all things briefly and in short, that thorow this short instruction of mine, of the Art of Drawing, Limning and Painting, you may be led to the commendable art of limning, graving and painting, never enough to be praised and exalted, being the whole scope and drift of our intended work.

The Learner must apply himself to a good Master.

Wherefore?


It is fit and necessary, that the Learner apply himself to a good Master, under whose experience, care and good instruction he may gain a good hand in drawing, and well-grounded knowledge in ordering his Figures, and making them of actions requisite, that after he comes to behold the life it self, he thorow his own genius, and his own exercised reason, all things nakedly and compleatly, might see and understand to be like formed with those things, of which he was formerly instructed.


 <<Previous Chapter            Table of Contents            Next Chapter>>

Goeree, Chapter II

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, 1674 original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

<<Previous Chapter            Table of Contents            Next Chapter>> 

___________________________________________


CHAP. II
The first Beginning of the Art of Drawing.
The first exercise.
TO come now to the first exercise of a young Learner, it is then most necessary, that he in the first place learn to understand the Art of Perspective, that by the knowledge of the same he may come to understand, how to give unto all things a due and just proportion of augmentation and diminution, without which knowledge the Ground of this Art, neither the reason of all things that are, and may be made, cannot be judged nor understood
Perspective.
And in this respect that this Art of Perspective doth consist in certain lines, which appear to foreshorten and diminish all things which we behold with our eyes, and to the same (as to a particular study) many demonstrations and figures are necessary, we have nevertheless resolved to pass them by, in regard there be several Books written, even of great and famous Masters, viz. The Works of Serlius, Marelois and Vignola; or de Vries, the Lord de Sargus and Boss; and principally that most famous work of the Learned Jesuit, but a little while since set forth in our English Language, in which is taught the Fundamentals of Perspective, out of the Geometrical square or Platform, to bring all things thorow a Geometrical square foot in Perspective; and to do the same also by the same means in Arches, and roofs of Churches, unto whom I will recommend all Learners, and go forward with our Art of Drawing; but in regard that most Learners at their first begining may be too young, and know not how to apprehend those things compleatly, yet shall the Master as soon as possible open the Learners eyes, and teach him the Art of Perspective, and that the Learner together with the Art of Drawing, might also learn to know and understand the Art of Perspective also.
The first beginnings are about some particular Members.

Faces subject to most changes.

Oval. 
The beginings then in the Art of Drawing, are first about the knowledg how to draw some particular members of the bodies of men, viz. Heads, Faces, Armes, Hands, Legs, Feet, &c. of which there are many Copies extant in Print, which also with profit for the first begining is best to be used principally for to learn how to draw a face or head thereby, being subject to most changes, and there we will instruct the Learner, first of the Oval, with his several changes and variations, and of the Cross in the same, because the Learner may learn to understand the better all bowings and returnings, reclinations and inclinations of all sorts of faces, according to the Examples at the End of this Book.
What the Oval doth signifie.
Now it is necessary, that in short they are instructed in this, viz. that the Head in general has the form or shape of an Egge, and therefore according to the Latin is called Ovale; the things belonging to such an head or face, are the eyes, eye-brows, nose and ears; and that they may have their due situations and places, comes to pass by means of the Cross thorow the Oval. Thus the perpendicular in the Oval being divided in four equal parts, makes the whole head to be four Noses in Height, but the face only of three noses; and the diameter crossing the perpendicular is divided into five equal parts, each being the bredth or wideness of one eye, and this Diameter is the ocular line wherein the eyes are to be placed, and therefore a streight line is to be drawn from the top of the right ear, thorow both eyes, to the top of the left ear, and from above thorow the midst of the Nose, Mouth and Chin is drawn the whole line which is called Perpendicular crossing the Diameter or ocular line at right angles, which together is called the cross of the Oval, upon which cross then (let the face turn which way it will) the eyes, nose, mouth and ears must be placed in their due and proper places, as in this face foreright you may observe. 
Illustration
(German edition, 1678,
digitized here)

Reason wherefore this Cross in the Oval is not understood of the young Learner.
But because experience doth teach, that the Learner can neither understand nor conceive the ground and right use of this cross in the Oval, and by consequence the many variations of the same, and much less the declinations, reclinations and inclinations of faces, although they do spend several days and weeks, to imitate such and the like faces, according to the draughts of their drawing-books; the reason is, (as I believe) because the drawing is done in plano, and therefore this strange changing of the cross they cannot understand.  I therefore have invented another way, thorow which (according to my judgement) the most stupid and dullest Learner may be instructed to understand and apprehend the same; and although this is but a small beginning for the Learner, nevertheless it is a thing of great consequence and importance; 
A great fault.
in respect it is observed that many Masters commit errors in the same, either thorow ignorance or neglect, not taking due observation of the change of the cross of their faces, which fault in a Master is the bigger, because it is the first A B C in a Learner.
 
German edition, 1678  
(digitized here)

Means to understand to draw with judgment all manner of faces.
You shall then (to gain this understanding) go to a Tourner, and cause him to turn the form or shape of an egge, round, smooth and even, out of a piece of wood fit for that purpose, like as the figure 1. doth direct you; draw then a line from point to point longways, thorow the midst of the same egge, as is to be seen in the figure 2. Divide this line in two equal parts, and draw a line overthwart from the left hand to the right, cutting the former line in that division at(?) right Angles, as you may observe in the figure 3. This being done, you have your desire now to bring this into practice, and to make the learner to understand the changes and alterations of the cross, and thorow the same to draw all manner of faces, as well those that turn aside, as those that turn backwards or forwards; and to shew them that this way (and no other way) it is done put then (as for the first proof) this egge strait before him, like as you see the Figure 3. to be; shew him therewith a few lines, the division of the face, each particular Member drawn in his place in the line upon paper, as in the Figure 4. and according to that Figure how to draw a face fore-right;
A Fore-right face.
then turn the Oval from the left hand to the right a little about, then the streight Perpendicular of the cross shall change and stand bent like a bowe or arch, as is to be seen in the Figure 5.
A 3/4 face.
Shew him there also the particular Members in his lines, as is to be seen in the Figure 6. and make him observe how that the Nose doth project beyond the round of the Oval; and like as in this Figure the same is in the contrary turning, viz. from the right to the left, as is to be observed in the figure 7
A face looking downward
Again turn the oval inclining downward, then the cross will appear as in the figure 8. it appeared to shew him there a face looking downward, as you may see in the Figure 9;
A face looking upward.
then let the Oval be turned backward, then the lines of the Cross will change again, as is to be seen in the Figure 10. and a face drawn according to them lines, appear as in the figure 11. And after this manner you may shew so many variety of faces as you please, with this oval,
A side face.
(except those that come side-ward, which commonly are directed, or thought to be drawn by means of a Perpendicular, as to be noted in the figure 12. upon which Perpendicular, Forehead, Nose, Mouth and Chin, are drawn as you may observe in the figure 13.) let them be of what manner soever. Nevertheless, this is easie and less subject unto errors.
The profit that comes by the manner of this instruction.
This then being well engrafted in the Learner, and being well understood by him, he then in little time will begin to draw out of his own invention, and fancy good fancies with good judgement and reason, and give Master-like Master touches to the same; where otherwise, if they draw only after a Print, Draught or Picture, they know not what they do, neither know they what they have to observe in the same, but learn just like unto Parrets, without any reason, and therefore consequently know not how to draw any thing out of their own invention; it is also observable before I go any further, to shew how necessary then is good instruction, and therefore the learner ought to chuse a good Master, as is able to give good instruction, and is well-experienced in well-drawing and painting,
Good Masters not always good Teachers
for it is not always certain, that good Masters are also always good instructors or Teachers; but happy is that scholar that finds both these qualities in a Master, nevertheless, teaching with judgement is most necessary and profitable to the learner; the great Mastership must come afterwards out of the Practitioners own industry and natural inclination.



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Goeree, Chapter III

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

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______________________________________




CHAP. III.
Of the Order and Manner to be Observed in the Art of Drawing.

IN respect that in all things there is a manner and order, or at least ought to be, so do we esteem (observing our Promise) it necessary to go forward from step to step, therefore when the young Practitioner is now well-grounded in drawing the Oval, and knows how he must draw a face, and the several part thereunto belonging in the same Oval.

First step. To draw after Draughts very profitable

Then will I  here shew him the first step of his exercise, viz. he must exercise himself to draw with earnest desire and diligence after good Draughts or Prints, which are duly observed, and judicially compleated. And by drawing after draughts (I judge) to be most profitable for those that intend to exercise Painting, but as for those that intend Engraving or Etching, let them follow the best Prints after the ablest Masters, which they intend to practice by: therefore he that teacheth, shall at first shew the young Practitioner the easiest and facilest ways according to his intended Practice, whether for Painting, Engraving, or Etching, according to the capacity of the Practitioner, and so go forward from that which is easie to that which is harder, observing this Order as well in drawing as in the draught which you give unto him to imitate and follow, until at last put before him, observing that which (of the properties belonging to drawing) we shall declare hereafter.

Second step. To draw after Pictures. Requires greater judgement. For what reason

    The second step of his Exercise is, to draw after pictures to bring them out of a great into a small proportion, and by this oftentimes using, they will learn and be accustomed to guess well, and beget a good and sure hand in drawing. And as this is the second step of his Exercise, so it is harder and requires greater judgement and knowledge, for in a picture you finde neither a circumferent stroke, neither manner of drawing, neither difference between light and light. (which in the variety of colours lies hid) although clearly and judicially shewn; and because the just and due shades of a picture must be exprest by a mean of only one single thing, viz. black or red oker, or the like, therefore sensible observations are necessary in the situation, or that which in a picture comes forward or goes backward, to observe the same also in your draught, all which in his due place shall be spoken as thought fit.

The third Step.

Now to come to the third step, we must consider again to learn some new thing, and therefore we commend unto you the Drawing after Rounds of plaister, done by very good Masters; there be the Works of Francisco which has made many fine children in plaister:

A good Figure necessary to draw after.

in like manner the Gladiator of his a very neat and exquisite Figure, the Rape of the Sabina of J de Bolonge, the Laocoon, the Wrestlers, the Greek Venus, the Hercules, the Hermes, the Anatomy of man of several and divers Actions, and several, as well antique as modern faces:

Plaster is one Introduction to the Life

The reason

after all the young Practitioner with very much profit may practice to draw; and this exercise is therefore the more necessary, because it is an Introduction to learn to draw after the life, as drawing after pictures is harder then to draw after a draught, for the reasons abovesaid.

   In like manner, is drawing after plaister harder then drawing after pictures, because in plaister the certainty of the circumferent stroke is not so apparent, neither the shadows nor lights in such a manner apparent as they are in pictures, draughts or prints; the manner, and what is to be observed in this exercise, shall be taught in another place, when I shall speak or teach of every particular exercise by it self.

The fourth Step.

    Now coming to the fourth step, viz. the life it self of all natural things, the Compleatest, the best Master for imitation and liberty, our only observation, for here is all things to be found, of what is to be found, or ever was enquired after, by brave and famous Masters, and therefore very necessary, (as soon as Practitioner in some means understands the foregoing exercises)

Perswasion to much drawing.

to exercise to draw after the life it self, by the direction and instruction of a good Master, with diligence and continual labour of the young Practitioner, according to the old proverb, Dii laberibus omnia vendunt, the gods for labour sell all things; or Gutta cavet lapidem, non vi sit sape cadende, by continual or often dropping, (and not suddenly) is a stone made hollow; therefore before we go to the instruction of the exercises in particular, we recommend to the young Practitioner diligent and a continual drawing, forasmuch as this is the way to attain to the perfection therein, not imagining that as soon as they begin to have only a glimpse of things, that they have enough, and so desist or decline drawing any more, but forthwith take the Pencil in hand, having a desire now more to painting, and not to drawing, which seeming imaginations now adays many young Painters keep very much down and backward in their practice,

Example to others.

which is lamentable and much deplorable, notwithstanding we have so many famous Masters, which continually during their term of life, have spent much of their time in drawing the last period of their lives followed and visited their weekly Colledges and drawn their Academical Figures.

Custom in Rome.

It was a Custom in Rome, and it is as yet observed and kept inviolated, that youth was kept sixteen, eighteen, nay, twenty years to drawing only, without suffering them to take either colour or pencil in their hand, thorow which means they became so expert in the Art of Drawing, that in a little time afterward, all things appertaining unto Painting, they easily, well and perfectly understood, and Master-like made demonstration thereof by their own hand to the world; and therefore it is not to be admired, that so many brave Masters are come forth out of the Schools of Rome, and yet daily come.

This should invite us to imitation.

Which Examples also should be a spur unto us to a diligent and serious imitation, That the Art of Drawing and Painting here in England may flourish, as much as in any part beyond the Seas, nor have any occasion to give Precedency or preeminence to any foreign Artist whatsoever: which is short I had a desire to speak of, to the rousing and stirring up of all Lovers of Art, and these also that has a desire to practice in the same. Now I will proceed, and with singular attendance observe what is remarkable to be observed in every particular step by it self.



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Goeree, Chapter IV

transcribed by Lala Ragimov, original spelling kept

An introduction to the general art of drawing

A 1674 English translation of
a drawing treatise by Willem Goeree (1635-1711)

<<Previous Chapter            Table of Contents            Next Chapter>>

______________________________________________


CHAP. IV. (the entire text below was in italics, LR)
Of those things which in every degree of the Art of Drawing are necessary to be observed.
COming now to the Practick of the Art of Drawing it self: And first, of Drawing after Draughts or Prints, I shall shew in the first place what is to be observed in drawing after a Print, Draught or Picture; and after I will speak of the manner of handling, and likewise of those things which customarily are most in use in the Art of Drawing, and of some particular Properties. What then appertained to Drawing after Prints,
Drawing after Draughts.
of that I will say nothing in particular, for that which is necessary in drawing after a Draught is also necessary in drawing after a Picture; and because not to make a Repetition of one thing twice; I will pass it by here, and speak of it in its place, where I shall speak of drawing after Pictures.
Drawing after a Picture.
How to place a picture.
Distance.
    Having then a Picture to draw after, put the same in a Place of good light, so that the flickering of the Glass of the Colours doth not hinder you; and for to finde that place, place your self (if possible) so that your eye together with the light of the day, runs to the Picture. Make choice of a reasonable distance, according as the Picture is big or small, at least so far of that with the opening of your eyes you may behold the whole Picture at once, for the greater your Picture is, the further off you must sit to draw after the same.


This image is NOT included in the English translation or in the 1668 Goeree's book, but it appears in later editions, so I thought to post it (from a 1678 German edition digitized here)

Summary translation:
A is the painting to be copied, 
B is the place from where light comes, 
D-C the place of the worst view (because of the reflection)




Put your Principal right before you.
Here it is to be noted, that when you draw after a Draught or Print, you must put the same strait or right before, even as you do a Picture, and you must not lay the same flat down before you, for then you behold the things presently to foreshorten; in the same manner shall your Paper (whereupon you draw) use five or six times double upon a Pannel-board, keeping the same in your lap, and with your knees elevate the same as high as possible; thus shall the thing you draw stand before you upon one end: and after this manner you shall observe the better whether your draught be like unto the Principal, which otherwise (your Draught lying flat before you) you should not see, by the reason aforesaid.
The beginning of a Draught.
This being observed, guess for the first the middle of your Picture, or that which you intend to draw, after having made your guess, shew the same with the point of your coal upon your Paper; then observe your biggest Figures (if there be more then one) touch the same with a light hand in his proper place; and so all that is in the Picture, then it will appear presently whether your guessing and your scetching be true;
You must assure your self of every stroke.
adde hereunto, that you assure your self of every stroke (which you are to draw,) with good reason and observation, taking good heed upon the great and general Parties, omitting the small breakings of Parties to the next scetching or drawing, whereof I shall speak hereafter; and so doing, shall you attain, not only readily, but also judicially, and with pleasure to your purpose; but contrariwise, if you use your self without observation, and as desperate, to begin your drawing, without considering whereunto the same will tend or run, then shall you, having made your draught, draw the same over and over again, and again being drawn over to little or no purpose, be overwhelmed and overcom with melancholy, and extinguish your genius or spirit, or at least cause a great tediousness in the same, and like Ship-Masters which without Compass go to Sea, not knowing where their Landing-place shall be, desperately leave the Rudder, despair of a safe landing, at last miserably perish in the sea;
With patience your must overcome your passions.
therefore I desire that Learners will take diligent heed to their Passions, and to their averse inclinations, for to overcome the same with Patience and Magnanimity, to make a firm purpose, That on that which (otherwise you made account to draw in two or three houres,) you bestow a whole day or two, and so doing, you shall not only proceed slowly and prudently, but you shall sooner then you thought, and better then you should have done otherwise, with great affection and speed finish: When you now rudely, yet with good judgement have made your scetcz, overlook them with a great care whether your Schetz be good, and whether the Actions of the Figure or figures contained in your Principal; you can observe also in your Schetz,
The Actions must appear as first in your scetzing.
for the Actions must shew themselves in the first and the rudest Schetz very apparently, before you can assure your self of any good , in regard that Actions are the life of a Picture, and by consequence of your Drawing. Having this, begin then to correct and amend your Schetz neater and neater, here taking a little away, and adding there a little, for with a Charcoal this is done very conveniently, for easily you may wipe away what is amiss, and may therefore very well be called a good means, attending the Art of Drawing;  you shall also take heed, that when you draw over your Schetz neater and neater, that you do not spoil or take away the first good
To use care, thus in drawing a Schetz neater, that you lost not the action.
Confer your draught with your principal.
Actions of your Schetz, which easily may happen, if you do not consider, (by what bowings or turnings of the several Parts, those or other Actions in a Figure or Figures come to represent themselves, or come again to be worked and spoiled; then pin your Draught upon a Pannel-board fast with a Pin or two; put the same down even with your picture or Draught which you have imitated; set your self down again in your former place, and behold your draught for a time with due observation, comparing the same with your Principal,
Faulss (as soon as seen) to correct.
and you shall easily observe what in your Draught is drawn amiss; be not tedious then, nor unwilling, but amend presently what you see amiss; suffer not a fault to pass by without correction, for such a draught would be a continual trouble of your patience, or by custom of seeing, hinder you to see the faults committed, for reasons as shall be shewn hereafter; take therefore rather Patience to perform all things requisite in this, suffering no faults to escape, that in this manner out of custom you may learn prudently and providently, with much patience to finish your work. Further, it shall profit you more, and a greater Progress you will make in the Art of Drawing,
Better is one good Draught, then 100 without observation
to make one good Draught, then a hundred without observation; you must strive with more pleasure to draw, then to have drawn, that is, rather to desire to be doing then to have done.
You must sometimes behold your work with a fresh eye.
How it comes to pass that we better discern faults.
Reason wherefore.
It is also not impertinent sometimes for one hour or two to lay by his drawing, and to recreate himself in somewhat else, whether it be in reading, or looking upon some good Prints, which doth stir up the spirit for to go on again in his drawing, and to behold the same with eyes unfatigable, and it shall oftentimes come to pass, that you shall espie many faults in your work, which before you could not possibly observe? the reason is that as then we behold our work as if it were another bodies work never by us seen before, and then our eyes easily espies some fault or other, which we take up presently, ex contrario, because we behold our work from the beginning; thereof comes a Custom to the eyes to behold the things of such former shape which hinders that the faults are not easily perceived by our understanding.
Example.
    The truth of this you may easily conceive by daily experience, for example, if we see a new fashion of cloathing, which we conceive to be not fashionable, or not becoming, and which many times is contrary to reason it self, then can we presently espie the faults, and disprove what we dislike in the same, but when this fashion begets a custom, so that for a long season we have had this fashion before our eyes, then we, in stead of an exception, take a love to it, and covet for the same, so that the same thing which before we found great fault withal in beholding it with our eye, now with great pleasure as a brave and a fine thing begin to behold the same. Therefore assoon as you shall espie a fault in your Drawing, amend the same presently, and tarry not, until a custom (as is said before) come to your eyes.
This rule you shall observe in all manner of Drawing, be it after Prints, Draughts, Pictures or Plaister-figures, yea, after the life it self, where conveniency and place will allow and permit the same; this then being well observed, then you shall proceed to a sure and judicial circumferent stroke, to shading and finishing of which, (when we come to speak of finishing) I shall shew divers ways and manners.


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